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African Continental Free Trade Area Business Opportunities in Africa 2024: Legal Factors and Growth Potential

The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) is a landmark agreement with a comprehensive scope that includes critical areas of Africa’s economy. By eliminating barriers to cross-border trade in Africa, the AfCFTA aims to significantly boost intra-Africa trade, particularly trade in value-added production and trade across all sectors of Africa’s economy, which is vital for business success across the continent. In the blog below, we look to understand the objectives of the AfCFTA, its legal framework and the need for legal advisory services to assist with navigating compliance with AfCFTA’s regulatory requirements.

Understanding AfCFTA

The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) is the flagship project of the African Union’s Agenda 2063. It lays the foundation for attaining inclusive and sustainable development across the continent over the next 50 years.

The AfCFTA is the world’s largest free trade area, bringing together the 55 countries of the African Union (AU) and eight (8) Regional Economic Communities (RECs). The overall mandate of the AfCFTA is to create a single continental market with a population of about 1.3 billion people and a combined GDP of approximately US$ 3.4 trillion.

This blueprint aims to boost intra-African trade by providing a comprehensive and mutually beneficial trade agreement among the State Parties covering trade in goods and services, investment, intellectual property rights, competition policy, digital trade, and women and youth in trade. This agreement aims to facilitate:

  • The Elimination of Tariffs – AfCFTA aims to progressively eliminate tariffs and other trade barriers on 90% of all goods traded between African countries. This will facilitate trade and reduce the cost of business within the continent.
  • The Creation of a Single Market – It creates a single continental market for goods and services, allowing for the free movement of these products across African borders.
  • The Establishment of a Customs Union – The agreement establishes a customs union, meaning that goods can move freely among member states, and a common external tariff will be applied to goods from outside the AfCFTA.
  • Economic Integration – The AfCFTA is a significant step towards greater African economic integration. It is expected to boost intra-African trade, stimulate industrialisation, create jobs, and enhance economic growth.
  • Protocols on Trade in Services – In addition to goods, the agreement includes provisions for trade in services, allowing for liberalisation and facilitation of services trade within the continent.
  • Legal Frameworks – The agreement is backed by a comprehensive legal framework and institution, including the AfCFTA Secretariat, which oversees its implementation and management.

With average tariffs of 6.1 per cent, businesses currently face higher tariffs when they export within Africa than on the continent. The AfCFTA will progressively eliminate tariffs on intra-Africa trade, making it easier for African businesses to trade within the continent and benefit from the growing African market.

Benefits of AfCFTA for intra-African trade and economic integration

From the above, it is clear that the AfCFTA is a landmark trade agreement that aims to promote economic integration and boost intra-African trade. Below, we unpack more of the benefits of AfCFTA for intra-African trade and economic integration:

  • Market Expansion – The AfCFTA creates a single market with a population of over 1.3 billion people, making it the largest free trade area in the world. This market size offers businesses access to a much larger consumer base, increasing growth and market access in Africa.
  • Trade Facilitation – The agreement aims to reduce trade barriers, including tariffs and non-tariff barriers, making it easier for goods and services to flow across African borders. This will reduce the cost of doing business and promote trade.
  • Diversification – AfCFTA implementation encourages economic diversification by allowing countries to specialise in producing goods and services in which they have a comparative advantage. This can lead to more efficient production and a broader range of consumer products.
  • Stimulating an Investment Climate in Africa – A more integrated African market will likely attract more foreign direct investment (FDI) by offering investors a larger, more attractive market. This can lead to economic growth and job creation.
  • Job Creation – Increased economic activity and trade can create jobs in various sectors, including manufacturing, agriculture, and services.
  • Skills and Knowledge Transfer – As businesses expand across borders, there will be opportunities for knowledge and skills transfer. This can lead to increased innovation and competitiveness.
  • Economic Stability – The AfCFTA can contribute to economic stability by reducing dependence on a few trading partners and diversifying trade relationships.
  • Reduced Dependence on Imports – By promoting local and regional production, AfCFTA can reduce the dependence on imported goods from outside Africa, increasing self-sufficiency.

Undoubtedly, the benefits of the AfCFTA will significantly contribute to the overall development of the African continent, especially where economic integration is concerned. For the AfCFTA to work effectively in achieving the above benefits, several legal protocols, regulations, and compliance considerations must be implemented. We examine these below. 

Legal factors and compliance consideration for businesses

The management and implementation of the AfCFTA requires several legal regulations, protocols and legislations to govern the agreement effectivity and ensure that all elements related to Africa’s free trade are regulated, lawful and fair. The following legal protocols and documents have been created to outline the various rules and procedures associated with the AfCFTA.

The Agreement Establishing the African Continental Free Trade Area

This main legal document outlines the objectives, principles, and rules governing AfCFTA. It provides the legal framework for the establishment and operation of AfCFTA.

The Protocol on Trade in Goods

This protocol outlines the rules and procedures for liberalising trade in goods among AfCFTA member states. It covers tariff reductions, rules of origin, customs procedures, and other trade-related matters.

The Protocol on Trade in Services

This protocol addresses the liberalisation of trade in services among AfCFTA member states. It includes provisions related to market access, national treatment, and regulatory cooperation in various service sectors.

The Protocol on Dispute Settlement

This protocol establishes the procedures and mechanisms for resolving disputes related to the interpretation and application of AfCFTA agreements. It outlines the dispute resolution process, including consultations, mediation, and arbitration.

The Protocol on Intellectual Property Rights

This protocol protects and enforces intellectual property rights within the AfCFTA framework. It covers patents, copyrights, trademarks, and other forms of intellectual property.

The Protocol on Competition Policy

This protocol promotes fair competition within the AfCFTA area by addressing anticompetitive practices and ensuring a level playing field for businesses.

The Protocol on Investment

This protocol addresses investment-related matters, including protecting investments, dispute settlement, and promoting investment flows within the AfCFTA region.

The Protocol on E-Commerce

This protocol deals with electronic commerce and digital trade, aiming to facilitate cross-border e-commerce activities while addressing related issues such as consumer protection and data privacy.

The Protocol on Rules of Origin

Rules of origin are essential for determining the eligibility of products for preferential treatment under AfCFTA. This protocol sets out the criteria and procedures for establishing the origin of goods.

Two other critical elements necessary for the success of the AfCFTA are the management of non-tariff barriers and policy harmonisation.

Non-tariff barriers (NTBs) hinder trade other than traditional import duties (tariffs). These barriers can take various forms and restrict the free flow of goods and services between countries within the AfCFTA. This includes regulations, standards, and conformity assessment procedures that can differ from country to country. Complex and non-transparent customs procedures, lengthy clearance times, and bureaucratic red tape can also act as non-tariff barriers. A wide range of regulatory and non-regulatory measures, such as licensing requirements, quotas, and quality standards, also form part of NTBs. Policy harmonisation is often seen as a solution to these barriers.

Policy harmonisation refers to aligning and standardising policies, regulations, and laws across the participating countries in the AfCFTA to create a more seamless and conducive trade environment. This involves creating a common legal framework that outlines trade rules and regulations within the AfCFTA. It also includes harmonising commercial laws, intellectual property rights, dispute resolution mechanisms and the standard of customs and trade procedures. In this way, member states are encouraged to align their regulatory frameworks in areas such as technical standards, intellectual property, competition policy, and consumer protection.

It’s important to note that AfCFTA is an evolving agreement, and the specifics of compliance requirements and trade policies in Africa may change over time. Member states are responsible for implementing and enforcing the agreement’s provisions, and they may have different approaches. Therefore, businesses and individuals involved in trade within the AfCFTA framework must stay informed about the latest developments and requirements in the specific member states they are dealing with. Consulting with legal and trade experts, such as LEX Africa, can guide compliance with AfCFTA regulations and protocols for successful trade within these regions.

Legal Advisory services: Navigating AfCFTA for business opportunities in Africa 2024

With the complexities of navigating AfCFTA implementation as a business, it is often advisable to utilise legal experts to ensure compliance.

These legal experts can help businesses understand and comply with the complex and evolving regulatory requirements of AfCFTA. They can assist in identifying relevant regulations, tariffs, and standards specific to the countries where the business operates or wishes to expand.

Since the AfCFTA involves multiple protocols, annexes, and regional trade agreements, which are often challenging to navigate, legal experts can help businesses interpret and apply these agreements to their specific industry or trade activities. Legal advisors can assist businesses in exploring dispute resolution mechanisms available under AfCFTA in the event of trade disputes, which will help protect a business’s interests and maintain positive trade relationships.

Skilled legal experts will also be able to assist with protecting intellectual property rights, such as trademarks and patents, across multiple AfCFTA member states and help businesses with legal requirements for IP protection across different jurisdictions.

From a business perspective, companies engaging in cross-border trade under AfCFTA often require various contractual agreements. Legal advisors can draft and review these contracts to ensure they comply with AfCFTA regulations and provide adequate protection for the business.

Choosing the right legal advisory services or legal advisor is critical to the success of businesses. This is why many businesses have chosen LEX Africa as their legal partner. LEX Africa was formed in 1993 and is a legal Alliance of leading African law firms with more than 700 lawyers in 30 African countries providing clients with International corporate law, cross-border and local African legal services. Our lawyers have the knowledge, expertise, track record and experience needed to assist businesses in ensuring compliance with AfCFTA regulations, protocols and legislations.


AfCFTA aims to enable the free flow of goods and services across the continent and boost the trading position of Africa in the global market. This provides immense opportunities for business expansion in Africa for businesses compliant with the AfCFTA’s complex and often difficult-to-navigate legal requirements and regulations. For businesses to remain successful, they must have the right legal advisory services and expertise. The LEX Africa Alliance has the experience, local insight, track record and expertise to help businesses navigate this compliance and maximise growth potential in Africa. For more on LEX Africa’s services and expertise, visit: 


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